Aristotle

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Aristotle AKA Ἀριστοτέλης aka Arastalis

Greece 384 BCE – 322 BCE

Comments: The Ancients; The 3rd Classical Greek Philosopher, whose student (though a politician , not Philosopher) preserved all this knowledge. The Father of inductive logic. If A= B and B=C then A=C ; Syllogisms; Observation and reflection, not experimentation; Inductive logic, "What do these things have in Common and how are they Different?" His ideas of Physics ruled till Galileo's gravity and speed experiments; His "meta"physics AKA the next book after describing the Physical World, was contrasted with that of Plato for centuries to come; suggested the rich only be allowed to earn some multiple of what the poor lived on, so society would advance together; believed hereditary slaves were different from Free people or captured slaves; The "Great Chain of Being" from God, down to Rulers, to people, to animals to plants to minerals;


Teachers: Socrates; Pythagoras;

Students: Alexander the Great (creator of Alexandria and it's Library, which preserved Classical Greek thought through the Dark Ages); Cicero; ; Hypatia of Alexandria; King Ptolemy ; King Cassande; Antipater; Euclid of Alexandria; Galileo Galilei; Nicolaus Copernicus; Leonardo da Vinci; Carl Linnaeus; Charles Darwin; Gerard of Pemona, translator into Latin; Avecena aka Ibn Sina; Averroes “The Commentator” aka Ibn Rushd  ; The Commentator; Michael Scot aka Michael the Scott, translator of Arabic; Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim; William of Moerbeke, @ 1215 CE ; Hunayn Ibn Ishaq aka Joannitius (809-873); Boethius; Thomas Aquinas; Anushirvan (aka Chosroes I) the Just, King of Persia; Caliph Al-Mansur, 2nd Abassid Caliph, the great Persian Library in Damascus ; Khalifah Abu Jafar al-Ma'mun ibn Harun, 832 CE; Yahya b. Masawaih, @ 857 CE; Abu Zayd Hunayn bin Ishaq al-Ibadi, @ 876 CE; Caliph Abdallah-al-Mamun ; Abu Yusuf Ya'qub ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi (@ 873); Al-Razi aka “Rhazes; Al-Farabi aka Alpharabius; Al-Ghazali; Al-Hakam II; Muhammud ibn 'Abdun ; 'Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Ismail; Ibn Bajjah aka "Avempace" ; Al-Khwarizmi ; Alcuin, monk; Raymond de Sauvetat, Archbishop of Toledo ; Hugo of Santalla aka Hugh of Santalla, author of Ars Geomancie aka the Art of Geomancy; Adelard of Bath; Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud; Alfarabi ; Avicenna aka Ibn Sina (980–1037); Averroes; Rabeinu Avraham Bar Chisdai HaLevi, author of Sefer HaTapuach; Johannes von Gmunden aka Johannes de Gamundia, author of Astrolabii qui primi mobilis motus deprehendur canones , 1515, @ 1380 – 1442; Johannes of Glogovia aka John of Głogów aka Johann von Schelling von Glogau, 1445 – 1507; Themo Judaei aka Themo the Jew aka Rabbi Timon, @ 1325 - @ 1371; James of Venice, @ 1125-1150; Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Falaquera; Rabbi Ezra of Gerona; Jacob Faber of Staples ; Maimonides; Abraham Abulafia; Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla; Giovanni Pico della Mirandola; Yohanan Alemanno; David Messer Leon ;Abraham de Balmes; Elijah Romanus; Shemaryah Ikriti; Alexander of Aphrodisias; Samuel ben Judah of Marseilles; Ḥunain ibn Isḥaq;




Friends: Plato;

Enemies: . Eurymedon the hierophant; Petrus Ramus aka Peter Ramus;

Organizations: The Academy of Athens; head of the royal academy of Macedon; created Lyceum in Athens;

Author: Prior Analytics; Posterior Analytics ;Physiks; Metaphysics; On Dreams ; On The Soul; many more lost in Arabic from the burning of the Library of Alexandria to the Golden Age to Toledo Spain, 1420s when the cooperation of Jews, Muslims and Byzantine Christians joined together to translate him into Latin from Greek and long lost Arabic versions;



Quotes: Philosophy begins with wonder; "nobody is thought to be ignorant of the law" and "not knowing the law is harmful", which became Roman Law "ignorance of the law excuses no one"; "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit"

Resources: The Birth of Western Philosophy - Plato and Aristotle lecture course by Prof Aryeh Kosman TTC 2004; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_of_the_Classics; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle ; read him here - http://darkbooks.org/collection/Aristotle.html ; Great Ideas of Philosophy lecture series by Prof Daniel N. Robinson; Great Ideas of Classical Physics lectures by Prof Steven Pollock; listen to him here - http://librivox.org/metaphysics-by-aristotle/ ; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-amodeo-phd/the-spiritual-crisis-unde_b_4204224.html ; http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/01/surviving_anxiety/355741/3/ ; The Other Side of History: Daily Life in the Ancient World lecture series by Professor Robert Garland; http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/27/magazine/the-rights-of-man-and-beast.html?action=click&contentCollection=Opinion&module=MostEmailed&version=Full&region=Marginalia&src=me&pgtype=article ; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/armand-marie-leroi/6-things-aristotle-got-wr_b_5920840.html ; my own essay Jews and Muslims reconcile the Gnostic Neoplatonism of the Ancients aka Gnostic Qabalah The Jewish Alchemists: A history and source book, by Raphael Patai, 1994; In some ways this Esoteric Wiki is based on Inductive, Aristotelian principles of collecting and comparing lots of information to determine similarities and differences. http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/medren/pageturn.html?q=sefer&id=MEDREN_5941518& ;