Austen Henry Layard

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Sir Austen Henry Layard

France / England / Turkey / Persia / Babylon; 1817 – 1894

Comments: Archaeologist of Nimrud, ancient Assyrian city AKA Kalhu but named after the Biblical Hunter Nimrod; Then went on to the ruins of Babylon; discovered the Library of Ashurbanipal ; brought much of the collection of Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum; visited India to investigate the causes of the Indian Mutiny; chosen to decorate the "Babylon exhibit of the Chrystal Palace for Queen Victoria's Jubilee; discovered 200 foot tall square tower, originally of mud bricks, perhaps model for the concept of the Tower of Babel? The did like their step pyramids, each level being closer to the sky, and the Godhead ; The Black Obelisk, in British Museum mentions Old Testament like Jehu, King of Samaria, of the House of Omri, and Menahem, King of Israel, dated 885 BCE ; This indicates the Ten Lost Tribes were sent to the land of the Medes in Iran to clear swamp in the South for farm land; great stories of encounters with the Ottoman Pashas (Mohammed, Ismail, Tahyar), the Kurds, Hadedeen Arabs, the Jebour Arabs; Chaldeans, Turks, local Roman Catholics, Albanians, Turks, Nestorian Christians, and the Yezidis; excavated Nimrud, site of the Assyrian capital of Calah, thinking it was Nineveh, 1845–51; then found Ninevah 1849; the palace of Sennacherib, who destroyed all Judah, except the capital of Jerusalem, 688 BCE; ambassador at Istanbul (1877–80); knighted, 1878; Ten Lost Tribes; Alphabet; hieroglyphs; Cuneiform;

Teachers: Ctesias; Herodotus; Diodorus Siculus aka Diodorus of Sicily  ; Moses of Chorene, of Armenia; king Tiglath-Pileser III aka King Pul; Nebuchadnezzar; Sennacherib; Sir Stratford Canning, the British Ambassador of Constantinople, Turkey; Paul-Émile Botta; Giovanni Morelli; Moses of Chore, Armenia; Ptolemy; Hammurabi; Xenophon; Claudius James Rich of Mosul, Iraq; Josephus of the Jews; Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (a relative of George Rawlinson); Samuel Birch;

Students: Dr. Thomas Inman; Samuel Noah Kramer; Richard Payne Knight; Hargrave Jenning; R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz ; Diane Wolkstein; Professor John W. Lee ; Oroboros Isis Gnosis Coven; Chuck Furnace; Rainbow Darkly; Catherine LaF*****; Ashbow AKA Orlando Mont***o; ; BoneBlossom; Raphael Patai; Leonard W. King, who wrote his obituary; Dr Stephanie Dalley; J. T. Hooker; C.B.F. Walker; W.V. Davies; John Chadwick; John F. Healey; B. F. Cook; Larissa Bonfante; Tom McArthur;

Friends: Edgar Leopold Layard, brother and birdwatching ornithologist ; Lord William Ewart Gladstone; Leslie Forbes; Philip Meadows Taylor; Richard Payne Knight; Hargrave Jennings; Richard Francis Burton; Godfrey Higgins; James Forlong; Pierre-François Hugues d'Hancarville; Alexander Hislop ; Edward Moor; Samual Sharp AKA Samuel Sharpe ; J. B. Lajard; Paolo Alessandro Maffei; Charles William King; William Francklin; Raphael Febretti; Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor ; Thomas Hyde; Edward Sellon; E. A. Wallis Budge; Normandi Ellis; Dr. Hincks; Hormuzd Rassam; Col. George Rawlinson, who discovered another obelisk with the name of Hezekiah, King of Judah; Mr. Loftus, who discovered Susa; Prof. Grotefend; James Fergusson; Monsieur Place; Mr. Ainsworth; Horace Hayman Wilson; Dr. Hinckes; M. Jules Oppert; M. Botta ;


Organizations: University of Oxford; Arundel Society, of collectors; founded "Compagnia Venezia Murano", 1866; Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath; British Parliament (1852–57 and 1860–69); British Museum;

Author: Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols, 1848–1849); large folio volume of Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh - The monuments of Nineveh, from drawings made on the spot By Austen Henry Layard, Esq., D.C.L. (1849); Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon (1853) (see it  ; plus an illustrative folio volume, called A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, 1853 ; Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana and Babylonia; Inquiry into the Painters and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians, 1848; Early adventures in Persia, Susiana, and Babylonia, including a residence among the Bakhtiyari and other wild tribes before the discovery of Nineveh, 1894; Inscriptions in the cuneiform character from Assyrian monuments, 1851; A Popular Account of Discoveries at Nineveh, 1852; The Ninevah Court in the Crystal Palace, 1854; Autobiography and Letters from his childhood until his appointment as H.M. Ambassador at Madrid, 1903 ; Nineveh and Babylon; a narrative of a second expedition to Assyria during the years 1849, 1850, & 1851; Discoveries among the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon : with travels in Armenia, Kurdistan, and the desert : being the result of a second expedition undertaken for the trustees of the British museum; Autobiography and letters from his childhood until his appointment as H.M. Ambassador at Madrid (Volume 1); The Madonna and saints painted in fresco by Ottaviano Nelli, in the church of S. Maria Nuova at Gubbio ; The Brancacci chapel and Masolino, Masaccio, and Filippino Lippi; The buried city of the east, Nineveh : a narrative of the discoveries of Mr. Layard and M. Botta at Nimroud and Khorsabad ; with descriptions of the exhumed sculptures, and particulars of the early history of the ancient Ninevite kingdom; Outline of the history of Assyria : as collected from the inscriptions discovered by Austin Henry Layard, Esq. in the ruins of Nineveh (Volume Talbot Collection of British Pamphlets) ;

Resources: ; ; read him here - ; look at the beautiful illustrations here - ; and here - ;,_Austen_Henry_%28DNB01%29 ;;  ; ; read him here - ; read an autobio - -