Charles Darwin

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Charles Darwin AKA Charles Robert Darwin, FRS

England 1809 – 1882

Comments: Evolution, the origin of life and it's development over centuries; used inductive logic to compare various similar creatures and chart their similarities and differences, revealing a grand natural plan; natural selection; Survival of the Fittest; diversity of life; traveled the world in the HMS Beagle; Galapagos tortoises; It should be mentioned that while Darwin was discovering the variations in living species, Paleontology was just starting. Protestant Missionaries in Africa were discovering large skeletons of creatures not mentioned in the Bible. This was considered to be a challenge to their faith to those who believed in Bible was the absolute WORD of God, when their senses proved them with contradictory information; The “abominable mystery” is why flowers flourished on Earth millions of years ago;


Teachers: Pliny the Elder AKA Gaius Plinius Secundus; Aristotle; Plutarch; Hippocrates; Democritus; Charles Lyell; John Edmonstone, a freed black slave; Charles Waterton; Robert Edmond Grant; Jean-Baptiste Lamarck; Robert Jameson; John Stevens Henslow; William Paley; John Herschel; Alexander von Humbold; Adam Sedgwic; Thomas Robert Malthus; Joseph Dalton Hooker ; Georg Forster;

Students: Carl Linnaeus; John Tradescant the Younger; Elias Ashmole; Nicholas Culpeper; Sir Hans Sloane; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; Frederick Hockley; Peter Caddy of FINDHORN; Ebenezer Sibly; Terence McKenna; BoneBlossom; Scott Cunningham; Michael Howard; Cat yronwode; John George Hohman; Richard Owen; Asa Gray; Henry Walter Bates; Thomas Henry Huxley; Ernst Haeckel; H. G. Wells; Robert L. Trivers; David M. Buss ; David P. Schmitt ; Stephen Jay Gould; Steven Pinker; John James Audubon, bird painter; Thomas Nagel; Richard Dawkins; Grant Allen aka Charles Grant Blairfindie Allen; Prof. William Graham Sumner, of Social Darwinism; Georges Cuvier aka Jean-Léopold-Nicholas-Frédéric Cuvier ; Donald Stewart of the State University of New York; Patrick Couper, of Queensland Museum; Thomas Hotz, Jr, University of Maryland paleontologist; Richard Meinertzhagen, who faked new species; David A. Rosenbaum; Charles Grant Blairfindie Allen aka Grant Allen; Neil Shubin, who discovered the fossil Tiktaalik roseae, half land/ sea animal; Francis Galton, author of Hereditary Genius, 1869; Cesare Lombroso; Jason Gallant, Michigan State University; Michael Sussman of the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Clair Cameron Patterson; George Tilton;


Friends: Alfred Russel Wallace; cousin William Darwin Fox; James Cook; Captain Robert FitzRoy; Josiah Wedgwood; cousin Emma Wedgwood; Charles Babbage and brother Erasmus Babbage; Harriet Martineau; William Whewell; Rev Charles Kingsley; O. C.Marsh AKA Othniel Charles Marsh; George Peabody; Clarence Darrow, lawyer;


Enemies: modern Republicans like ex-senator Rick Santorum, Representative Michelle Bachnman,Texas Governor Rick Perry , ex-Governor Mike Huckabee; Prof. Cynthia Eagle Russett of Yale for his sexism; Ken Ham, creationist, of Answers in Genesis ;


Organizations: Royal Society, 1839; Plinian Society; University of Edinburgh; University of Cambridge; Geological Society of London; Zoological Society; The X Club, devoted to "science, pure and free, untrammeled by religious dogmas";

Author: On the Origin of Species, 1859; The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex; The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals; articles in Stevens' Illustrations of British entomology; Darwin's Journal; Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle; The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs; Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation; On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection (never delivered as a speech); Orchids to Variation; from Descent of Man to Emotions; from Insectivorous Plants to Worms; The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, 1868, which includes the theory of telegony, environmental influences in addition to genetics in the creation of individual offspring;;


Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin ; read him here - http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/d#a485 ; http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwin-hooker-letters; http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwin-hooker-letter-list; http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/09/23/rediscovering-richard-dawkins-an-interview.html; or listen to his books here - http://librivox.org/author/166 ; http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2013/12/16/131216fa_fact_kolbert ; http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/dec/17/ancient-cat-bone-research-china-domestic-pet ; ; http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/12/how-humans-created-cats/282391/ on human's affecting animal evolution; http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/19/books/cynthia-russett-historian-of-women-dies-at-76.html?hpw&rref=books ; http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/19/science/toe-fossil-provides-complete-neanderthal-genome.html?pagewanted=2&rref=science&hpw ; http://www.ibtimes.com/dna-oldest-flowering-plant-addresses-darwins-abominable-mystery-study-1516714 ; http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/01/surviving_anxiety/355741/6/ ; http://science.time.com/2013/12/04/science-and-space/slide/top-10-new-species/ ; on the relationship of the 3 Founders of Evolutionary Science - Whatever. I am not claiming to be the Charles Darwin of putting pizza in a skillet, nor the Alfred Russel Wallace. I wish only to be a Thomas Henry Huxley, doing my part to promote a discovery that is true and which has the power to reshape our understanding of the fundamentals of life - http://gawker.com/the-way-to-reheat-pizza-is-in-a-skillet-1502193686 ; Creationism in Texas schools - http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2014/01/creationism_in_texas_public_schools_undermining_the_charter_movement.html ; http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/22/the-strange-science-behind-virgin-births.html ; http://www.salon.com/2014/03/09/sexs_feel_good_evolution_charles_darwins_erotic_shocker/ ; http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/climate_desk/2014/04/your_inner_fish_book_and_pbs_documentary_on_tiktaalik_and_neil_shubin.html; oh! how all 6 lineages of electric fish evolved similarly, see http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Home/Science/Scientists-find-how-electric-fish-got-its-jolt/articleshow/37324933.cms; http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/07/21/the-scopes-monkey-trial-2-0-it-s-not-about-the-stupid-science-deniers.html ;