David Reubeni

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David Reubeni

Hobur in the Caucasus Mountains or central Arabia or Cranganore, the Malabar Coast of India or Firuzkun Afghanistan, or Nubia in northern Sudan 1490 – 1535 to 1541

Comments: Qabalist; Adventurer ; Jewish traveler who piggybacked on Sabbatai Zevi's messianic wave; Tried to convince Pope Clement VII there was a Jewish Kingdom in Kazakhstan, ready to make war with him on the Byzantine Empire (not the Muslims); Claimed to represent the Ten Lost Tribes taken by the Assyrians @ 750 BCE ;invented many origins and stories about his community and life; Made no religious claims, more political and historical ; 50 percent to 80 percent of DNA from the Ashkenazi Y chromosome, the male lineage, originated in the Near East, while four Mothers were responsible for 40 percent of Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA, and 80 percent originated in Europe, so while lots of Jewish males made it to Europe, many then intermarried with Native European women. Unfortunately for Reubeni, virtually none came from the North Caucasus disproving the Khazar Kingdom probably was a fiction, or mythologized history; Why was the Prester John or Ten Lost Tribes legends set in the land of the כוזרים (Kuzarim) aka 'Qasar' aka Khazars on the Western steppes, along the Silk Road between the Orient and the West? While they may or may not have been an ancient Hebrew peoples settled on the outskirts of the Persian Empire as a barrier, or the ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews of today (those of us from Russia, Ukraine, Poland and Germany rather than Judea, Spain or Africa), but by the late 700s CE the Rulers and elite merchants were practicing Judaism and inscribing coins in Hebrew. But there is a thousand years of nomadic Paganism on the steppes between the loss of the Ten Lost Tribes and the Khazars. And while Babylonian practices were to resettle captive peoples on the borders as a hedge against raiders and invasion, that is a long time for original Judeans to survive as a minority, only to rise to power a thousand years later. Coins traded to the Rus of Scandinavia, later the Slavic Christian Russians, and the "Cario Genizah" documents show and Muslim explorers recorded the capitol of Atil and the diversity of religions peacefully coexisting there. This Kingdom was destroyed by the Magyars, who eventually settle in Hungary, the Pechenegs of the southern Russian steppes, and the Rus, who turned their trade (and raiding) from the Volga to Dnieper river, where the Pechenegs had established Kiev. So, some think it likely most of the Red-headed Jews one sees are the product of Viking Rus from Scandinavia mixing with Khazar Jews on the Volga River between 650 CE and 967, when the capitol was destroyed and lands conquered. In the Arabic Chronicles are descriptions of both "White Khazars" (ak-Khazars) and "Black Khazars" (qara-Khazars), red haired and fair vs. dark eyed Jews with darker complexions. The Golden Horde of Genghis Khan's grandson imitated some of the Khazar organization and laws in bringing together the diverse tribes who composed the Mongol Invasion of 1200 and the 1396 invasion of Tamerlane; was either running a con for profit or to convince Europe their Jews needed to be well treated to entice the Ten Lost Tribes to join Europe against… Byzantium and eventually the Arabs in the Holy Land;

Teachers: Sabbatai Zevi; Rabbi Isaac Luria; Cagliostro; Eldad ha-Dani;

Students: Gershom Scholem; Heinrich Grätz ; Michael Chabon, author; Raphael Patai; Joseph Karo;

Friends: Solomon Molcho AKA Diego Pires; Jacob Frank; Baron Thomas von Schoenfeld; brother, King Joseph Reubeni, who may not have existed; Miguel da Silva, Portuguese minister; King John III of Portugal; Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire /Germany; Herculano;

Enemies: Selaya, inquisitor of Badajoz; The Spanish Inquisition; Josel of Rosheim;

Author; posthumous Sipper David ha-Reubeni, his diary published in 1940;

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Reubeni; Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia; http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12416-pseudo-messiahs; Jerusalem: City of God, City of Fire by Prof. Francis Edward Peters AKA F. E. Peters lecture series; fictional account in GENTLEMEN OF THE ROAD by Michael Chabon; http://www.nbcnews.com/science/most-ashkenazi-jews-are-genetically-europeans-surprising-study-finds-8C11358210 ; The Inquisition in Malta, and Christian Europe - http://heritagemalta.org/index.php/museums-sites/the-inquisitors-palace/ ; http://abcnews.go.com/International/secret-rooms-passageways-erotic-frescoes-vatican/story?id=21238559 ; The Barbarian Empires of the Steppes lecture series by Professor Kenneth W. Harl, 2014;