The Devil, aka Satan aka Lucifer aka Beelzebub (originally a Philistine god Baal, God, but of the Flies) aka the Watcher angel Satanael aka Iblis in Islam aka the Shaytan aka Shaitan aka "the Evil One" aka Melek Taus ( the Peacock Angel) of the Yazidi aka Baphomet, of the Knights Templar aka Angra Mainyu of Zoroaster aka the Greek Mephistopheles, he who avoids the light (φῶς) aka Belial (Beliyya'al) of Canaan aka Mastemah ("enmity") aka
He is “Legion”, of many NAMEs
Has been confused with The Judeans Serpent of Genesis, Horned God of Wicca, Cernunnos of the Celts, Pan of the Greeks, Set of the Egyptians, Sammael aka Samiel aka Sammael - one of the two (Hebrew) Spirits of Death, the Angel/King of Death (Malach Ha-Mavet) or Devil of Death, Azazel of Judeans lore (actually the Spirit residing WITHIN the scapegoat, not the animal itself), "Abaddon" (The Destroyer), an Angel aka the "The Angel of the Abyss", identified as being of being controlled by the Archangel Samael,
Just a Demon, not a Devil - Asmodeus (Tobit 3:8, 17); Agrath bat Mahalath, Queen of Demons; The mazzikim ("harmful spirits") of the Talmud; a ru'ah tezazit ("a Hebrew demon of madness"); Palga, demon; Zereda, demon; the eyeless Ruhe, demon; Rishpe l, demon; Ketev Meriri, demon; Ketev Yashud Ẓohorayim, demon that looks like the traditional Christian Satan; Shabriri, demon of blindness; the mazzikim are angels of destruction;
Notes: Is the Devil the distinction between Good and Evil, ignorance or resistance to God's Will, or an active force against it?
The Hebrew biblical word ha-satan (השָׂטָן) means "the adversary"; He is equal in status to the other Council of Lesser Gods aka the the "sons of God" present, he is NOT an Angel in the sense that Michael and Auriel are subordinate aspects of GOD HIMSELF. Just as a Child is not the same person as his Parent, Satan is a lesser manifestation of the Divine. And like a Child, this Spirit would like to disprove something his parent believes, that his Servant Job is just grateful, not loving, and that loyalty would fade if those benefits did. God gives over Job's circumstances, but not life, to this Adversary, he does not send "poisoned arrows" into Job's life HIMSELF. And in the end, claims uncharacteristically, that while HE is in charge of everything, he was not PERSONALLY tormenting him. God urges Job to pick himself up, strap on his Man-Pants, and fix things himself.
the reference in Isaiah 14:12 to Lucifer, or the "Son of the Morning", is a reference to the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, who destroyed the Northern Kingdom of Israel; The Persians come out of the East, like the "Sun in the morning".
"Egyptian god Bes , images in many places, Birth House of temple of the goddess Hathor at Dendera on the west bank of the Nile in Egypt; squat, stocky body of a bandy-legged dwarf, he faces outwards, arms akimbo. His grotesque head has a leering, lewd expression, as his thick tongue lolls towards his chin, while the strands of his beard end in flickering spirals. A tail dangles suggestively between his legs; associated with many of the good things in life: sex, drinking, music, and merriment. He also had an important protective function, and was often invoked during childbirth; unlike most Egyptian gods, who usually appear in profile, Bes is brazen and frontal, as well as comical; imagery of the goddess Isis with her son Horus offered a prototype for representations of the Virgin and Child. In a similar fashion, Bes was an important antecedent for the Devil; similarities between Satan and his sylvan forebear, the raucous Greek goat-god Pan, with his beard, hairy haunches and cloven feet. Like Bes, Pan was associated with prodigious sex;"
Pope Gregory I describes Satan as having horns and hooves in 591 CE. Bishop John Aylmer of London describes those who do not believe in the Christ as Satanists in 1559
Judaism inherited it's devils and demons from Native Canaanite beliefs, but more strongly from the recent Babylonian captivity, where Persian belief of supernatural beings and folklore played a large role. Maimonides brought Judaism out of superstition and into a more modern approach to religion.
Iranian archaeologist Kamyar Abdi; Alastair Sooke; Anja Ulbrich, a curator at the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford; the art critic Robert Hughes; from http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20130619-how-the-devil-got-his-looks;
Friends: Anton LaVey; Michael Aquino; Don Webb; Jerry Cornelius; Joris K. Huysmans; Henri Antoine Jules-Bois; Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia ; Miley Cyrus? ; Ariana Grande; Aleister Crowley; Eugen Grosche; Kenneth Anger; Goethe; Edred Thorsson; Michael Smith, author of The True Story of Father Girard and Miss Cadiere (1840); Henry Boguet, author of An Examen of Witches (1929); Richard Bovet, author of Pandaemonium (1951); Nicholas Remy, author of Demonolatry (1930); and Jacobus Sprenger & Henry Kramer, translators of the Malleus Maleficarum (1928); Henry Boguet (1550-1619), author of Examen of Witches [AKA Discours Sorciers]; Jules Michelet,and translator A. R. Allinson, of Satanism and Witchcraft;
Enemies: C. S. Lewis; St. Ignatius of Loyola; Jesuit James Martin S.J.; Dante Alighieri; John Milton; Elaine Pagels; Dennis Wheatley; Saint Irenaeus; Saint Thomas More ; Simon Magus; Saint Thomas Aquinas; William Miller; A.E. Waite; Alice Bailey; Duns Scotus; Christian Lodowick; George de Benneville founder of Universalism; Julius Sachse ; Conrad Beissel; Girolamo Savonarola; Johann Georg Gichtel; Joseph Smith of the Mormons; Origen; Jacob Aranza; Roma Downey aka Monica on the TV series "Touched by an Angel" ; her husband, Mark Burnett, movie producer; Pope Francis, 2014; John Ashton; Sir Edmund Andros; James Franklin (Ben Franklin's brother who opposed inoculation); John Williams, Dr and tobacconist; Dr. William Douglass; Robert Calef, author of More Wonders of the Invisible World AKA The Wonders of the Invisible World Displayed (Salem, 1796) ; Stanislav Andreski; M.W. Annear; Arthur Miller, play-write; the International Association of Exorcists; Rev. Francesco Bamonte;
Interestingly, when you "go among the Sinners' where you think the Devil would be, you sometimes find Salvation and if Christian in the form of Jesus the Christ there... like in prison or among (reformed) alcoholics. This has lead some to seek Salvation in Sin, like the Tantra adepts and Western Antinomianism experimenters such as “Mother Eve “ aka Eva Margaretha von Buttlar , Count Nicholaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf of the Moravian Brotherhood, and later Aleister Crowley & Anton LaVey.
Books That Have Made History: Books That Can Change Your Life lecture series by Professor J. Rufus Fears; on JOB and the Devil in the Old Testament; http://ideas.time.com/2013/10/08/is-the-devil-for-real/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devil; http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/demons.html ; he lives in the South, of course - http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/the_dissolve/2013/10/the_exorcist_40th_anniversary_blu_ray_why_the_devil_fearing_south_loves.html ; http://gawker.com/shocking-new-evidence-proves-satan-is-real-and-lives-in-1463865534 ; The World of Biblical Israel lecture series by Professor Cynthia R. Chapman ; http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/12/19/the-syrian-refugeeswhoknowtheycantgohome.html ; http://www.gutenberg.org/files/32596/32596-h/32596-h.htm for THE REVOLT OF THE ANGELS by Anatole France, 1914; http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/fbe/fbe005.htm for The Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan; http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/bct/bct04.htm for THE CAVE OF TREASURES; http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/bb/ for the Book of the Bee; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Aylmer_%28bishop%29 ; An harborowe for faithful and trewe subiectes (1559) ; http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/02/16/why-american-christians-love-satan.html ; http://ideas.time.com/2014/02/28/is-satan-dead/ ; http://talkingpointsmemo.com/livewire/kevin-swanson-pastor-frozen-gay-devil ; http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/a-modern-pope-gets-old-school-on-the-devil/2014/05/10/f56a9354-1b93-4662-abbb-d877e49f15ea_story.html?hpid=z1 ; http://www.salon.com/2014/05/29/why_so_many_christians_still_literally_believe_in_demons_and_satan_partner/ ; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/02/international-association-of-exorcists_n_5552121.html ; http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7376.html ; look for Elaine Pagels, author of The Origin of Satan; The Luminous Stone - Lucifer in the Western Tradition, (ed) Michael Howard & Daniel A. Schulke, 2016;