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Galileo Galilei

Italy 1564 – 1642

Comments: Astronomer; telescope; confirmation of the phases of Venus, discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons), the observation and analysis of sunspots; the Architecture Structure Problem; Galileo's gravity and speed experiments with marbles on an incline plain disproved Aristotle's theory of gravity being specifics to each object, rather than a general rule on all objects; inspires the Journal of Galiean Studies; proved every planetary object (including our own) was in motion, nothing was "unmovable'; wrote to Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler in code, to avoid the Inquisition;

Teachers: Aristotle, whose laws of motion /gravity he disproved and who thought the planets smooth, not cratered; Nicolaus Copernicus aka Copernik; Thomas Harriot, early telescope in England; Euclid; Leonardo da Vinci; Giordano Bruno;

Students: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; Christiaan Huygens; Sir Isaac Newton; Vincenzo Viviani; Galileo disproved Leonardo da Vinci's theory that wire's strength was related to it's length; Robert Hooke captured the idea in Hooke's Law,"ut tensio sic vis" or "as the extension, so the force" AKA F= -Kx. That was great until Leonhard Euler clarified it for different structural materials so the load-carrying and deflection characteristics of beams could be mathematically, rather than empirically, tested (don't have to have it fall down to know it is not strong enough); Augustine Couchy; Leon Foucault;Owen Gingrich of Harvard; Richard Lan, book collector; Brother Federico Cesi of the Academia dei Lincei; Horst Bredekamp, art historian; Rick Watson, bookseller; William Shea; Nick Wilding of Georgia State U; Paul Needham; Cardinal Jorge Mejia; Marino Massimo De Caro, forger? or bookseller; Filippo Rotundo; Daniel Pastore; Paolo Pampaloni; Thomas F. Mayer; Bertolt Brecht, play-write; Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, author of Sefer Elim aka the Book of Elim & Ta’alumot Hockhma aka the Secrets of Wisdom aka The Crucible of Wisdom aka Masref la Hokhma, 1591 – 1655; Moshe Metz; Zerah ben Nathan of Troki; Manasseh ben Israel, translator of The Eighth Spring;

Friends: René Descartes; Ascanio Piccolomini (the Archbishop of Siena); Tycho Brahe; Johannes Kepler;

Enemies: Pope Urban VIII, who gave him several chances to recant; Church of Rome; Father Orazio Grassi; inquisitor Vincenzo Maculani; Cardinal Maffeo Bellarmine; Christoph Scheiner, 1573, 1575- 1650;

Organizations: the Academia dei Lincei;

Author: Little Balance (La Billancetta); The Starry Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius), 1610; Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems; Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences, 1638 (perhaps the 1st modern material science text, written under house arrest, when the Church stopped him from looking to the Heavens); Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea; The Assayer, 1623; Le Operazioni del Campasso Geometrico e Militare, 1606; The "Florence Sheet" painting of the phases of the Moon;

Resources:; ; Great Ideas of Classical Physics lectures by Professor Steven Pollock; listen to his work in Italian and an essay about him in English here - ; ; ;