Garibaldi

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General Giuseppe Garibaldi AKA Joseph Marie Garibaldi

Italy 1807 – 1882

Comments: united Italy, March 17, 1861 and has a Masonic degree named after him, occasionally performed by the Grand Lodge of New York in Italian; as a Freemason, combined two irregular Masonic Rites in the Rite of Memphis and Misraim in 1881.


Teachers: Antonio Meucci; Cagliostro; John Yarker;

Students:

Friends: Camillo Cavour; Victor Emmanuel II ; Giuseppe Mazzini; Victor Hugo; Alexandre Dumas; George Sand ; Anita AKA Ana Ribeiro da Silva; Fructuoso Rivera; Manuela Sáenz; British prime minister Viscount Palmerston; Protestant minister Alessandro Gavazzi ;Br. Giuseppe Zanardelli (1829-1903) aka The Old Man of Madero;


Enemies: Pope Pius IX; Sardinian Prime Minister, Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour;

Organizations: Freemasonry; Carbonari revolutionary association; The Red Shirts; Hunters of the Alps (Cacciatori delle Alpi);


Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi; http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s8489.html ;