Johannes Kepler

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Johannes Kepler

Bavaria / Germany. 1570 - 1630

Comments : Astronomy; Neoplatonism; equates the 5 planets he knew about that circles the Sun with the 5 Platonic Solids and 4 Elements plus aether (each of the five Platonic solids could be uniquely inscribed and circumscribed by spherical orbs; nesting these solids, each encased in a sphere, within one another would produce six layers, corresponding to the six known planets—Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. By ordering the solids correctly—octahedron, icosahedron, dodecahedron, tetrahedron, cube—Kepler found that the spheres could be placed at intervals corresponding (within the accuracy limits of available astronomical observations) to the relative sizes of each planet’s path, assuming the planets circle the Sun. ) ; discovered important conjunctions of planets and a supernova but was cautious as others used it as a prophecy of the rise of Protestantism. Wanted to avoid the fate of his friend Giordano Bruno who was burnt at the stake 4 years before this discovery; Christoph Besold saved Kepler's mother when she was charged with Witchcraft; So it was a very real concern; ; wrote to Tycho Brahe and Galileo in code, to avoid the Inquisition;

Teachers: Tycho Brahe; Vitus Müller; Jacob Heerbrand; Michael Maestlin, mathematician and astrologer; Rabbi Isaac Arbarnanel, astronomer & author of The Well Of Salvation, 1497; Abu Ma'shar al-Balki, Sabian astronomer; Euclid; Pythagoras;

Students: Isaac Newton; Edmond Halley ; Christopher Wren ; Robert Hooke; Charles Glenn Wallis ; Leon Foucault; Marino Massimo De Caro, forger? or bookseller;

Friends: Emperor Rudolf II; two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II; Barbara Müller, 1st wife; Susanna Reuttinger, 2nd wife; Reimarus Ursus ; Giordano Bruno; Athanasius Kircher‎;

Enemies: disproved theories of Nicolaus Copernicus; Galileo Galilei; Robert Fludd; Helisaeus Roeslin;


Author: Astronomia nova (New Astronomy); Harmonices Mundi; Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Mysterium Cosmographicum (The Cosmographic Mystery)1595; Rudolphine Tables and the related Ephemerides, Concerning The More Certain Fundamentals Of Astrology ; Harmonies of the World; Somnium aka The Dream, 1634, an imaginary visit to the Moon, early Science Fiction; Refraction, 1611;

Discoveries: ellipse-based astronomy; refracting telescope;; Astrology; the Great Comet of 1577; the Kepler triangle is a right triangle whose sides are in a geometric progression, based on Euclid and Pythagoras's work on triangles;

Resources: Freemasonry by Mark Stavish;;; The Invisible History of the Rosicrucians: the world's most mysterious secret society by Tobias Churton, 2009 ; read him here - ; ; ; ; ;;