John Winthrop the Younger

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John Winthrop the Younger aka Hermes Christianus

England /America 1606 – 1676

Comments: Alchemy; did experiments on Fishers Island; connected the Indian Maize (descendants of Teosinte, tall annual or perennial grasses of the Zea in the Americas) with the corn grasses which have seeds on top (Wheat, Spelt, Oats, Barley and Rye), all descendants of Triticum in the Middle East and Europe; In Africa the equivalents are Millet variety, Buckwheat and Amaranth, or durum wheat made into Couscous; Bambara Groundnut; Teff ; finger millet; Asia has Rice; South America Indian maize and Quinoa; Why is this important? Until you can produce a sustainable crop of energy rich foods which can be saved for Winter, no large cities or populations are possible. It is the successful sowing, cultivation, harvesting, storing and consuming of carbohydrates which makes civilization possible; was given Julianus de Campis aka Cornelius Drebbel's personal copy of Basil Valentine's Of Natural and Supernatural Things; his medicine was used by Native and Colonial alike; most famous was Rubila, 4 grains of processed antimony, 20 grains of nitre, salt of tin, and something that turned it red, perhaps phosphate?; a famous elixir greatly prized by women in particular, it seems, and distributed through the wives of the Nobles at no fixed cost; adopted John Dee’s Monas Hieroglyphica as his signature / sign; saved several suspected Witches from death; New London, CT alchemical smelting and salt works; Astronomy;

Teachers: Sir George Ripley ; John Rist, poet; Jan Baptist van Helmont; Julianus de Campis aka Julius Sperber; Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel AKA Cornelius Drebbel,1572 – 1633 , alchemist; Dr. John Dee; Dr. John Everard; John Amos Comenius; Thomas Harriot; Dr. Robert Childe; Thomas Dudley, Gov of MA; his father John Winthrop founded MA; Francis Bacon; Paracelsus; Tommaso Campanella aka Campenella; Pythagoras; Elias Ashmole; Rabbi Tobias of Poland; Bernard Palissy (1510-1590), author of "De la ville de forteresse" (1563);Robert Fludd; Gabriel Plattes, author of Macaria; Hugh Peter; Gerard Boate; Johann Moraien; Thomas Fones, 1st. Father in Law; Petrus Galatinus; Samuel Norton of Bristol; William Brereton, who nominated him to the Royal Society;

Students: Philalethes aka George Starkey aka Eirenaeus Philalethes; Noyes Darling, who cultivated sweet corn from these colorful Native corns ; Edmund S. Morgan, historian; Rev. John Davenport of Yale ; Walter Woodward; Rev. Gershom Bulkeley, son in law of Charles Chauncy, alchemist and president of Harvard; George Bulkeley; Dorothy Bulkeley; Gosuinus Erkelens, who bought his mining works in East Haddam; Rev. Ezra Stiles of Yale; Walter Woodward ; Thomas Vaughan AKA Eugenius Philalethes ; Rev. Cotton Mather;

Friends: Christian Lodowick of Newport, Rhode Island and TORO Synagogue; Thomas Tillman; Dr. Samuel Danforth; Charles Morton; Reverend Ezra Stiles, President of Yale; Conrad Beissel of The Ephrata Commune; Julius Sachse; Gabriel Eckerling; Jakob Martin; Ezekiel Sangmeister; George de Benneville founder of Universalism; Robert Boyle; Sir Isaac Newton; Samuel Hartlib; Ben Franklin; William Cooper,publisher; Gosuinus Erkelens; Colonel Israel Stoughton; William Stoughton (soon to be Gov of MA); Roger Williams, Gov of RIU; Martha Fones, 1st wife; Elizabeth Reade , 2nd wife; Humphrey Atherton; The Pequot and Nipmuck Native Americans; Chief Robin Cassacinamon; Sir Robert Moray; William White, alchemist; Dr. Elizabeth Winthrop, cousin; Rev. Thomas Shepard ; Edward Howes, 1620s, Law student in Inner Temple; Anne Hutchinson; her sister Katherine Scott; Benjamin Worsley; Jacob Golius, Persian, Arabic scholar;

Enemies: the Mohegans, Uncas in particular;

Organizations: Trinity College, Dublin; Massachusetts Bay Colony; chief founder of Agawam (now Ipswich, Massachusetts) in 1633; built the fort at Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River; established iron works at Lynn and Braintree, Massachusetts.; united the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven; Royal Society of London; popularized maize as "corn" like barley or wheat in England; Personal witnessed the Protestant defeat at La Rochelle by Catholic forces and the genocide after; more accepting of other religions than his Father, who governed Massachusetts as a Puritan stronghold;

Author: "Some Natural Curiosities from New England" ; "Description, Culture and Use of Maize";

Quotes; "Whether that Learned Mr. Comenius bee yet living & where; & what remarquable from him &c I mett him once; & saw a copy of a Letter of his at Wedell, with Mr Ristius Pastor. there wherein he mentioned, that he had found out the Motum perpetuum." Letter from Hartlib to Samuel Hartlib on John Amos Comenius and the secret of perpetual motion, 16 December 1659;

Quiote about him: Projections various by fire he made Where Nature had her common Treasure laid Some thought the tincture Philosophick lay Hatched by the Mineral Sun in Winthrops way, And clear it shines to me he had a Stone Grav’d with his Name which he could read lone– His fruits of toil Hermetically done Stream to the poor as light doth from the Sun. The lavish Garb of silks, Rich Plush and Rings, Physicians Livery, at his feet he flings.

Resources:;;; Prospero's America: John Winthrop, Jr., Alchemy, and the Creation of New England Culture, 1606-1676 (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) by Walter William Woodward, and a group led disccusion in Hartford, CT 2017 ; ;; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Fortress of the Soul - Violence, Metaphysics and Material Life in the Huguenots' New World by Neil Kamil, 2005;