Linnaeus

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Carl Linnaeus AKA Carl Nilsson Linnæus AKA Carl von Linné AKA Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists) AKA "The Pliny of the North" AKA "The Second Adam"

Switzerland 1707 – 1778


Comments: Naturalist ; surveyed creatures and plants of all sorts and developed the naming procedures currently used, of Kingdom, Class, genus; Species, subspecies (animal) or variety (plant); Campanula serpyllifolia, renamed after him as Linnaea borealis; exposed as a fraud the "seven-headed hydra" of Hamburg, Germany; motto - "Famam extendere factis" or we extend our fame by our deeds; compared the 4 Races, "Europæus albus" (white European), "Americanus rubescens" (red American), "Asiaticus fuscus" (brown Asian) and "Africanus niger" (black African) with the ancient Four Temperaments of Aristotle - sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable), choleric (ambitious and leader-like), melancholic (introverted and thoughtful), and phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet), beginning the institutionalization of British Colonial attitudes towards less technologically advanced Native peoples; invented index cards; a theoretical "flower clock" based on when plants bloom during the day; great library of occult and Alchemy books in his library; Interested in “the most secret mysteries of nature”; applied Science to illustrate Morality of God's Divine Plan, Chain of Being, Divine Economy of Nature and the one System of the World, a living planet, Gaia; secret mystic;


Teachers: Aristotle; Pliny the Elder; Hippocrates; Democritus; John Tradescant the Younger; Elias Ashmole; Nicholas Culpeper; Johan Telander; Daniel Lannerus of Lower Grammar School at Växjö, 1717, who interested him in botany and ecology; Dr. Johan Rothman; Joseph Pitton de Tournefort; Professor Kilian Stobæus; Olof Celsius; Olof Rudbeck the Younger; Sir Hans Sloane; Virgil; Gaspard Bauhin and Johann Bauhin; Jacobus Bontius; Jean-Baptiste Lamarck;

Students: Charles Darwin; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; Alfred Russel Wallace ; August Strindberg ; Frederick Hockley; Augustin Pyramus de Candolle; E. L. Greene; Philip Miller of the Chelsea Physic Garden; Anders Celsius; Gronovius; Peter Caddy of FINDHORN; Ebenezer Sibly; Terence McKenna; BoneBlossom; Scott Cunningham; Michael Howard; Cat yronwode; John George Hohman; Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, AKA "the Linnaeus of the Austrian Empire"; Joseph Banks; James Edward Smith, founder of the Linnean Society of London; William T. Stearn; Christopher Tärnström; Pehr Forsskål ; Pehr Löfling; Pehr Kalm; Daniel Solander; James Cook; Anders Sparrman; Carl Peter Thunberg; Carl Gyllenborg; crown-prince Adolf Fredrik; Erik Petreus ; Claes Grill ; Magnus Lagerström ; Jonas Alströmer; Queen Lovisa Ulrika ; King Gustav IV Adolf; Ernst Haeckel; Georges Cuvier aka Jean-Léopold-Nicholas-Frédéric Cuvier ; A.J. Cain; Marsha Keith Schuchard;


Friends: Jean-Jacques Rousseau; Sébastien Vaillant; Claes Sohlberg; Peter Artedi; Johan Frederik Gronovius; Dr. Isaac Lawson; Herman Boerhaave; Johannes Burman; George Clifford III; Johann Jacob Dillenius; Antoine de Jussieu; Count Carl Gustav Tessin; Sara Elisabeth Moræa, wife; Swedish king Adolf Frederick; Catherine II of Russia;

Enemies: Nils Rosén; Johan Gottschalk Wallerius; Jacob Theodor Klein ; Johann Georg Gmelin; Gunnar Broberg ;

Organizations: Uppsala University of Sweden; Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala; knight of the Order of the Polar Star of Sweden; suspected Rosicrucian;

Author: Systema Naturae, 1738; Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum (on plant sexuality), 1729; Genera Plantarum ; Critica Botanica; Flora Lapponica (the plants of Lapland); Fundamenta Botanica ; Bibliotheca Botanica ; Genera Plantarum; Corollarium Generum Plantarum; Öländska och Gothländska Resa; Flora Suecica ; Fauna Suecica ; Philosophia Botanica, 1751; Species Plantarum, 1753; Dieta Naturalis; Nemesis Divina, never completed, 1740 ;



Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linnaeus; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linnaeus%27_flower_clock; read him here -http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/l#a9516; see his collection - http://www.linnean-online.org/; http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2013/12/16/131216fa_fact_kolbert ; Emanuel Swedenborg, Secret Agent on Earth and in Heaven: Jacobites, Jews, and Freemasons in Early Modern Sweden, by Marsha Keith Schuchard, 2012; http://www.cycle-of-life.net/div_case1-linnaeus.html ;