Philalethes

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George Starkey AKA Eirenaeus Philalethes AKA the peaceful lover of truth AKA Eyeanaeus Philoctetes aka the Cosmopolitan AKA the “Philosopher by Fire” AKA George Stirk aka aka Georgius Sterchi aka Georgius Stircus


Bermuda/ England/ America 1628 – 1665


Comments: Alchemy; Rosicrucian; famous for "Starkey's Pill" remedy; died in the Great Plague of London, 1665, one year before many thought the World would end; experiments on The Philosopher's Stone 1645 - 1665; great furnace maker, a business kept somewhat separate from his alchemy by the Pseudo name; May have left Boston for England to get better machinery, or because of the Witch crazes;


Teachers: Sir George Ripley ; John Rist, poet; Paracelsus;Jan Baptist van Helmont (especially De Febrius and De Lithiasi); Jean D'Espagnet aka "the hermetic magistrate" (especially Encheiridion Physicae Restitutae and Arcanum Hermeticae Philosophiae); Lazarus Zetner (especially Theatrum Chemicum), these indicated volumes borrowed from John Winthrop the Younger in 1648;


Students: "Thomas Vaughan aka AKA Eugenius Philalethes ; Robert Samber AKA Eugenius Philalethes Junior, author of Long Livers, 1722; Christian Lodowick of Newport, Rhode Island and TORO Synagogue; Thomas Tillman; John Winthrop the Younger, Gov of CT ; Dr. Samuel Danforth; Charles Morton; Reverend Ezra Stiles, President of Yale; Conrad Beissel of The Ephrata Commune; Julius Sachse; Gabriel Eckerling; Jakob Martin; Ezekiel Sangmeister; George de Benneville founder of Universalism; Robert Boyle; Sir Isaac Newton; Samuel Hartlib; S. Merrow Broddle, Editor of the Alchemical Works: Eirenaeus Philalethes Compiled; William R. Newman, 1994; Rubellus Petrinus, author of The Great Alchemical Work of Eirenaeus Philalethes, Nicolas Flamel and Basil Valentine; Rubellus Petrinus; S. Merrow Broddle; Johannes Jacobus de Maldini, author of Mirabilia mundi, sive De scientiarum artiumque omnium origine et progressu tractatus, 1726; Johann Joachim Becher, author of Institutiones chimicae prodromae. Oedipus chimicus obscuriorum terminorum et principiorium chimicorum, mysteria aperiens et resolvens- Opusculum, omnibus Medicinae et Chimiae Studiosis lectu perquam utile et necessarium, 1664; Moyses Charas, author of Pharmacopée royale galénique et chimique, 1753;Johann Helfrich Jüngken, author of Chymia experimentalis, sive Naturalis Philosophia Mechanica, ubi Prior Pars Generosiorum Remediorum fabricam ex Triplici Regno cum omnibus manipulationibus, fideliter exhibet. Pars altera Eadem Medicamenta, inter alia, ad quoscunque morbos generaliter adaptare docet. Adjectis Monitis Medicis Affectus Puerorum concernentibus. Nec non Experimentis Rerum Naturalium Principia, Commentarii loco, illustrantibus, 1702; Baro Urbigerus, perhaps William Faithorne, author of Aphorismi Urbigerani, or Certain Rules, Clearly demonstrating the Three Infallible Ways of Preparing the Grand Elixir or Circulatum majus of the Philosophers, Discovering the Secret of Secrets, and Detecting the Errors of Vulgar Chymists in their Operations: Contain'd in one Hundred and One Aphorisms: To which are added, the Three Ways of preparing the Vegetable Elixir or Circulatum ; William R. Newman, 2003; Lawrence M. Principe, 2002; Patrick J. Smith, 1993; S. Merrow Broddle, 1994; William R. Newman; Lawrence M. Principe;


Friends: Ben Franklin; William Cooper, publisher; Gosuinus Erkelens; Susanna Stoughton, wife; Colonel Israel Stoughton; William Stoughton (soon to be Gov of MA);

Organizations: Harvard College in 1643;

Author: The Marrow of Alchemy, Part One, 1654; The Marrow of Alchemy, Part Two, 1655; Enarratio Methodica; Secrets Reveal'd (London, 1699); Introitus apertus ad occlusum regis palatium, published 1667 after his death; The Reformed Commonwealth of Bees (1655); AN EXPOSITION UPON THE First Six Gates OF Sir GEORGE RIPLEY’S Compound of Alchymie, 1678; An Open Entrance To The Closed Palace Of The King ,1667 ; Brief Guide to the Celestial Ruby, 1668; Ripley reviv'd, or, An exposition upon Sir George Ripley's hermetico-poetical works : Containing the plainest and most excellent discoveries of the most hidden secrets of the ancient philosophers, that were ever yet published ; The Secret of the Immortal Liquor Alkahest, or Ignis-Aqua, 1709; A True Light of Alchymy, 1709; Nature's Explication and Helmont's Vindication; or a short and sure Way to a long and sound life, 1657; Pyrotechny asserted and illustrated, 1658; The admirable efficacy of oyl which is made of Sulphur-Vive, 1660; An appendix to the Unlearned Alchimist Wherein is contained the true Receipt of that Excellent Diaphoretick and Diuretick PILL, 1663; related - George Starkey's Pill vindicated From the unlearned Alchymist and all other pretenders; A brief Examination and Censure OF Several Medicines, 1664;Liquor Alchahest, or a discourse of that Immortal Dissolvent of Paracelsus & Helmont (aka Jan Baptist van Helmont), 1675; Tres Tractatus De Metallorum Transmutatione, 1669; Enarratio methodica Trium Gebri Medicinarum; Experimenta de praeparatione mercurii sophici ad lapidem, 1678  ; Vade-Mecum Philosophicum sive Breve Manuductorium ad Campum Sophiae aka Experimentsfor the preperation of the Sophick Mercury , 1678; 'A smart Scourge for a silly, sawcy Fool, an answer to letter at the end of a pamphlet of Lionell Lockyer, 1664; may have authored Philadelphia, or, Brotherly love to the studious in the hermetick art.: Wherein is discovered the principles of hermetick philosophy, with much candor and plainness, 1666; Pyrotechnia ofte vuur-stook-kunde, vast-gesteld en opgehelderd, ofte het sekerste en veiligste middel om de konst te doen triumpheren over de natuurlijke gebreken; sijnde een volle en opene ontdekkinge van de medicinale verborgentheden... en alleen ontdekkelijk door het vuur. Met een aanhangsel, aangaande de nature... van verscheide specifique medicamenten, 1668; Collectanea chymica : a collection of ten several treatises in chymistry : concerning the liquor alkahest, the mercury of philosophers, and other curiosities worthy the perusal, 1684; The Admirable Efficacy and Almost Incredible Virtue of True Oil Which is Made of Sulphur Vive on Fire, and Commonly called Oil of Sulphur per Campanam; A True Light of Alchymy; SECRETS REVEAL'D - An Open Entrance to the Closed Palace of the King;


Quotes: “ The monad, explicit; and the Myriad, implicit” in the Beginning;


Resources: http://hermetic.com/stavish/alchemy/history.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Starkey ; read him here - http://darkbooks.org/pp.php?v=1400497739 ; http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/franklin/record.html?filter.subject_facet.val=Alchemy%20Early%20works%20to%201800&start=75&q=alchemy&id=FRANKLIN_1531521& ; http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=eebo2;idno=A90641.0001.001 ; http://www.alchemywebsite.com/Emblems_Frontispiece_Starkey_1687.html; see https://archive.org/details/aphorismiurbiger00urbi) ; https://archive.org/details/gettyalchemy; https://archive.org/details/collectaneachymi00phil ; Prospero's America: John Winthrop, Jr., Alchemy, and the Creation of New England Culture, 1606-1676 (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) by Walter William Woodward