Rabbi Abraham Aben Ezra

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Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra aka אברהם אבן עזרא or ראב"ע,aka ابن عزرا; AKA Abenezra, The Wise, The Great and The Admirable Doctor aka Abraham Ibn Ezra aka aka Abraham Avenezra

Spain 1089 — 1164


Comments: Rabbi; love poems; wandered Europe and England; skeptical about demons and against the use of talismans, even Hebrew ones; believed the True NAME of God was hidden in Aleph Heh Vau Yod, the Hebrew dual Vowel/ Consonants which allow the written language to also be more easily pronounced. Interestingly, this theory, without it's Spiritual ramifications, resurfaces in Joel M. Hoffman 's IN THE BEGINNING: a Short History of the Hebrew Language, 2004; Moses alchemically burned up the Golden Calf to make drinkable gold which the Tribe all then drank for health; “Some say that “Me-Zahav” hints at those who make gold out of copper, but these are words of wind!” (as in “ buy from me zahav (gold) having been purified by eish (fire) that you may be oisher (rich)””; Alchemy; medicine; Astrology; Astronomy; great expert in Hebrew language and translator from Arab texts; his writing reflects the "resumptive repetition"* of dual explanations to explain difficult concepts. (* Abraham Ibn Ezra as an Exegete by Nahum S. Sarna, 1993 page 12); Sort of cranky, or very critical of other Rabbi's perspectives; his students assigned the Angels to Planets, in speaking of the scapegoat ritual "in the desert" or "Azazel". Saturn-Michael, Jupiter to Raphael, Mars to Samael (or Dubiel), the Sun to Gabriel, Venus to Bruel, Mercury to Harqiel and the Moon to Sakhliel; to receive prophetic dreams, read relevant verses of the NAME of 72 letters, formed from Ex14:19-21; Were the Golden Calf and Bronze Serpent made as astrological talismans, emphasizing Aquarius at midday and Taurus rising, to guide Moses out of the desert? ; the Tabernacle was a complex talisman to attract Planetary Forces; the astral plane;


Teachers: Yehuda Halevi ; Yehudah Ibn Chayug; Saadiah Gaon aka Sa'adya Gaon; Menastor Ibn Yechiya ; Samuel ben Jacob ibn Jam' aka Samuel ben Jacob Jam'a ; Zosimos; Gerber, author of the Book of 112 Prescriptions; Pseudo-Democritus; Agathodaimon; Korah in the Bible, aka Qarun in the Quran; Ibn al-Nadim, author of Kitab al-Fihrist, @ 998 CE; Pseudo-Majriti; Jahiz; Maqdisi; King Solomon; Rabbeinu Bachya aka Bahya ibn Pasquda aka Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda; Rabbi Moses ben Meir; Judah ben David Hayyuj, 950 - 1000; Hai Gaon; Moses ha-Kohen ibn Chiquitilla, @ 1080; Solomon ibn Gabirol AKA Avicebron; Pliny; Proclus; Plato; Al-Kindi; Ikhwan al-Safa; Rashi AKA Shlomo Yitzhaki; perhaps ; Solomon ben Abraham Yaish the Elder in Spain; Bil'am; Ptolemy, author of Tetrabiblos; Ibn Wahshiyya, author of Nabbatean Agriculture;



Students: Pietro d'Abano who translated his Liber de nativitatibus, 1154, into Latin as Liber nativitatum et revolutionum earum, 1507; Shem Ṭov ben Judah ibn Mayor, author of Ha-Maʾor ha-Gadol; Baruch Spinoza; Joseph ben Jacob; Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla; Thomas Hyde; Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers; RaMCHaL aka Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto; Robert of Ketton, a later canon of the Church in Tudela; Hermann of Carinthia; Gerard of Cremona; Dominieus Gundissalinus; Conte de Sarzana ; Theodore, court astrologer of Frederick II; Moses ben Jacob Cordovero; Prof. Michael Friedlaender, of the Jew's College in London; Simcha Pinsker ; Johann Kunckel @ 1630-1703; Olaus Borrichinus, 1626-1690; Georg Wolfgang Wedel, author of De Mose Chimico aka Moses the Chemist, 1545-1621? Listed as 1721, which would be 176 years old!; John Frederick Helvetius aka Johannes Fredericus Helvetius Schweitzer , author of The golden calf which the world adores and desires etc (on the Philosopher’s Stone); Georg Ernst Stahl, 1600 – 1734; Nicholas Lenglet Du Fresnoy, author of Hostoire de la philosophie Hermetique, 1742; J. Denham Smith; Fabricius, author of Bibliotheca; W. Herapath aka William Bird Herapath,1820 –1868; Petrus Bonus of Ferrara, author of Margarita Preciosa aka The Precious Pearl; Hermann Conring, 1606 – 1681; Johann Georg Schmid, author of The Alchemist who passes Evil Judgement on Moses, etc; Raphael Patai; Rabbi Abraham Yagel,author of Gei Hizzayon; , Moshe Idel, author of “Metatron: Some Remarks on Myth in Jewish Mysticism”; Axelrad aka Abraham Ben Alexander of Cologne, who bridged Abraham Abulafia's Letter Magick with Chasidism in Keter Shem Tovaka Ma'amar Peloni Almoni aka Ma'amar be-Kabbalah Nevu'it aka Treaties on Prophetic Qabalah; Abraham ben Azriel, author of The Spice Garden aka Arugat ha-Bosem, 1234;Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, author of Sefer Elim aka the Book of Elim & Ta’alumot Hockhma aka the Secrets of Wisdom aka The Crucible of Wisdom aka Masref la Hokhma, 1591 – 1655; Eleazar Ben Judah of Worms; Isadore Twersky; Jay M. Harris; Nahum M Sarna; Y. Tzvi Langermann; Uriel Simon; Simhah Kogut; Gershom Scholem; Yehudah Lieb Krinsky, author of Mehoqeqe Yehudah; Ludwig Philippson, 1811-1889; A. Weiser, 1976; G. Jare; Naftali ben Menahem; Denis Diderot; Joseph, son of Jacob of Moreil; Abraham ibn Daud; Rabeinu Yehudah IbnTibbon; Prophiat Duran; Meir ha-Kohen; Elijah Levita, 1468-1549; Jedidiah Solomon Norzi, 1560 - 1626; Spinoza; Judah Leon ben Moses Moskoni of Ocrida, Bulgaria; Joseph ben Eliezer Bonfils, author of Safenat Pa'neah; S. R. Driver; W. Bacher; I.M. Millas; Shem Tov ibn Maior; Shem Tov ibn Shaprut; Rabbi Shmu’el ibn Motot; J. Samso; L. Richter-Bernburg; David Kimhi; Rabbi Mordechai Komtino; Joseph Solomon del Medigo; Samuel ibn Zarza author of Meqor Hayyim, 1559; Pseudo-Ibn Ezra of Spain, author of Sefer ha-'Atzamim, astromagic; Stephane Toussaint; Solomon ibn Yaish the Younger; Joseph ibn Kaspi; Judah Leon ibn Mosconi; Avishai of Bulgaria; Elhanan ben Moses Kalkish Kalomiti, author of Even Sappir; Joseph ibn Kaspi, author of Par’shat ha-Kesef; Shemariah of Negroponte aka The Cretan aka Shemaryah Ikriti of Negroponte;; Calib Korsonos of Constantinople; David Pardelon; Isaiah of Trani; Elijah of Serres; Obadiah ben David the Egyptian; Rabbi Samson; Eleazar ben Mattitya; Joseph ben Eliezer the Spaniard, author of Saf’nat Pa’neah; Moses ben Judah Nagari of Italy; Alexander Altmann; Joseph ibn Wakkar; Moses Narboni; Ezra Gatigno; Shem Tov ibn Mayor; Shem Tov ibn Shaprut; Simon of Provence; Hayyim of Briviesca; Isaac Profiat Duran; Abraham Geiger, 1810-1874; Yehshua Hershel Rosenkrantz of Pinsk; Ricard Simon; Don Isaac Abravanel; Elijah Levita; Jacques Basnage; Moses Mendelssohn; Michael Creizenach, 1789-1842; Nachman Krochmal, 1785-1840; Marcus Jastrow, 1829-1903; David Rosen, 1823-1894; Asher Crescas;Mordecai Comtino; David Rosen; Shlomo Franco; Christopher Colon Columbus, who relied on the Almanach Perpetuum aka Biurei Luhot; Alfonso de Valladolid aka Abner of Burgos, author of Minhat Qenaot aka A Jealousy Offering @ 1270 – 1347; Maurice Finkelson of Paris; Pseudo-Ibn Ezra of Spain, author of Sefer ha-'Atzamim on astromagic; Samuel Motot aka Rabbi Shmu’el ibn Motot aka Shemuel ibn Motot, author of Megillat Setarim; Nehemiah ben Shlomo; Antonio Ferdanadez Carvajal @ 1580 - 1659, 1st "official Jew" in England; Dr. M. Friedlander; Abe Lipshitz ; Leo Prijs, 1920s;




Friends: Yechiel MePisa;

Enemies: - disagreed with Jonah ibn Janah aka Abul Walid ibn Merwan, @ 985- 1040; Samuel ben Hofni; Rashbam AKA Samuel ben Meir ; Rabbi Joseph ben Simon Kara, @ 1160; Hiwi al-Balkhi; Rabbi Yitshaqi; Anan Ben David the Karaite; Samuel David Luzzatto aka the Shadal eventually; Dunash Ben Labrat; Abraham al-Tabib; Moses Sofer, 1762-1839; Akiva Yosef Schlesinger; Shem Tob Ibn Shem Tob, author of Book of Faithfulness @ 1430; Ramban aka Rabbi Nachmanides AKA Nahmanides;


Organizations:

Author: The Book of the Secrets of the Law, The Mystery of the Form of the Letters, The Enigma of the Quiescent Letters, The Book of the Name, The Book of the Balance of the Sacred Language and The Book of Purity of the Language, & grammatical writings, among them Moznayim ("Scales", 1140) and Zahot (Tzahot = "Dazzlings",1141) ; Shahiludium : traditum in ribus scriptus Hebraicis )tr. by Thomas Hyde AKA De Historia shahiludii tria scripta hebraica viz. Rabbi Abraham Aben-ezræ prelegans poëma rythmicum, R. Bonseniora Ben-Jachiæ facunda oratio profaica, liber deliciæ regum prosã, stylo puriore, per anonymum; May be the translator of The Veritable Clavicles of Solomo, called Rabbin Abognazar (perhaps Aben Ezra aka Rabbi Abraham Aben Ezra by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers); Yesod Mora; Abrahami Eleazaris Uraltes chymisches Werk [microform] / welches ehedessen von dem Autore Theils in Lateinischer und Arabische, Theils auch in Chaldäischer und syrischer Sprache geschiebe ; Iggeres HaShabbos; Sefer Tzachos; Peirush Mishlei le R' Avraham Ibn Ezra; On the 10 Commandments; Sefer HaAtzamim; Sefer HaIbur; Sefer HaMispar on math; Sefer HaOlam; Sefer HaShem (on the NAME); Ohr Nogah ; Sefer Kli Nechoshes (on building an astrolabe)); Sefer Sefas Yeser; Sefer VaYosef Avraham ; Sefer Yesod Mispar; Sefer Yesod Morah VeSod Torah ; Liber de nativitatibus ; Ḥai ben Meḳiẓ ; in Miqraot G'dolot, 1860, he shares the commentary with Rashi; Sefer ha-Tarsis;Hay ben Meqitz ; The Book of Reasons, formulating the foundations of early Astrology; Sefer ha-Ibbur; Sefer ha- Ehad, on # 1-9; Ta'amei ha- Luhot on Astronomy; Kli Nehoshet, on the Astrolab; Sefer Mo'znayim; Iggeret ha-Shabbat; Yesod Mora; Sepher Berurah; Sefer ha-Moladot; Sefer ha-Sh’elot; Sefer ha-Me’orot; Sulam ha-Mazalot ha-Gadol; Kohot Sh’not ha-Adam; Commentary on the Pentateuch; commentary of Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra on Hosea; Chumash Daat Ezra - Biyur Peirush Ibn Ezra (on Bamidbar, Beresheet, Devarim, Vayikra); Goralot Harav Avraham Ibn Ezra, Sefer HaShe'elot, Goral Asiriyot; Koheleth : Peirushei Ibn Ezra; Perushei HaTorah L'Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra (3 vol); Sefer Iyov : Peirush Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra; Sefer Moznaim : Rabbi Avraham ibn Ezra; Sefer Tzachut : Rabbi Avraham ibn Ezra; Shneim Asar HaMazalot;



Quotes: "Thy breath is far sweeter than honey, Thy radiance brightens the day. Thy voice is e'en softer than lyre-notes, yet I hear its echoes always. Thy wit is as pure as thy witchery, and both in thy face are displayed. Alas! mid the maze of thy pleasaunce, from the Path to thy heart I have strayed". "Unless one relies on the words of the Oral Law, a cultured person is powerless properly to understand one commandment of the Torah";


Resources: Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra: ‎Studies in the Writings of a Twelfth-Century Jewish Polymath, (ed) Isadore Twersky & Jay M. Harris, Harvard, 1993; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_ibn_Ezra ; http://www.worldcat.org/title/shahiludium-traditum-in-ribus-scriptus-hebraicis/oclc/008140139 ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages by Israel Abrams,1975; Texts and Techniques in the Islamic and Christian Worlds by Charles Burnett, 1996; http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i8528.html ; http://warburg.sas.ac.uk/library/digital-collections/bibliotheca-astrologica/ ; https://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/search?fileID=&keyword=Abraham%20ibn%20Ezra&page=1&x=0&y=0 ; http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=44&ref=Add_MS_26880; http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/medren/pageturn.html?q=sefer&id=MEDREN_4852174& ; http://browse.nypl.org/iii/encore/record/C__Rb15633657__Ssepher__P2%2C53__Orightresult__U__X3?lang=eng&suite=def ;