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Baruch Spinoza AKA Benedict de Spinoza AKA "the Blessed" AKA Benedictus

Dutch 1632 – 1677

Comments: Enlightenment; God and Nature as two names for the same reality, Rationalist Rabbi; ""Panentheism", rather than "Pantheism" to describe Spinoza's view of the relation between God and the world. The world is not God, but it is, in a strong sense, "in" God. Not only do finite things have God as their cause; they cannot be conceived without God. In other words, the world is a subset of God." (WIKI entry); ; pointed out passages of the Bible which happen after Moses' death, and concludes Moses didn't write the 5 Books of the Bible associated with his authorship; "shunned", the Jewish form of excommunicated in 1656 by the Portuguese-Jewish community in Amsterdam for “abominable heresies and monstrous deeds” ; Alchemy; Chemistry;

Teachers:influenced by Maimonides; Rabbi Saul Levi Morteira; Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel; Frances van den Enden (Franciscus van den Enden); Rene Descartes; Menasseh ben Israel; RaMCHaL aka Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto; Jarrigh Jelles aka Jarrich Jelles, Mennonite; Helvetius aka Johann Friedrich Schweitzer aka John Frederick Helvetius , author of Vitulus Aureus aka The Golden Calf aka The Golden Calf, Which the World Adores, and Desires aka The Golden Calf, Which the World Adores and prays to, in which is discussed the rarest miracle of Nature in transmuting metals, namely how the total substance of lead within a moment with a minutest particle of the true Philosopher’s Stone was changed into pure Gold in Hague, Comitis, Amsterdam, 1667, 1667 & Miraculo transmutandi Metallica, 1667, 1625–1709; “Elias Arista” aka the prophet Elijah; Isaac Vossius, 1618 – 1689; Berchtolt aka Bershtelt the Goldsmith;

Students:influenced Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Gilles Deleuze; Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; Henry Oldenburg; Albert Einstein; R.H.M. Elwes; Johann Gottfried Eichhorn; Wilhelm de Wette ; Friedrich Bleek; Hermann Hupfeld; Julius Wellhausen; Karl Heinrich Graf; Albrecht Alt ; Martin Noth; William F. Albright, anthropologist; Roger Norman Whybray; H. H. Schmid; Rolf Rendtorff ; Erhard Blum ; John Van Seters; Thomas L. Thompson; William H. Propp; Antony F. Campbell ; Mark A. O’Brien; Richard Elliott Friedman; John van Seter; Joseph Klausner; David Ben-Gurion; Rabbi P. Toledano; Br. Berthold Auerbach, 1812-1882; Rabbi Moshe Zacuto aka Moses ben Mordecai Zacuto aka The ReMe'Z, 1625 – 1697 of Venice, Verona & Mantua;

Friends: Moses Zacut;

Enemies: Jean Astruc; Umberto Cassuto; Rabbi Solomon Rodrigues Pereira of Amsterdam; Samuel David Luzzatto aka the Shadal;

Organizations: Keter Torah yeshiva; Talmud Torah synagogue ;

Author: Ethics; Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being ; scientific essays ("On the Rainbow" , "On the Calculation of Chances"); On the Improvement of Understanding; Ethics; A Theologico-Political Treatise aka Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, 1670; Correspondence;

Resources:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinoza read him here - http://www.sacred-texts.com/phi/spinoza/index.htm ; on the authorship of the Bible - http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/cv/phai/index.htm ; or listen here - http://librivox.org/author/1355 ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages by Israel Abrams,1975; The Jewish Alchemists: A history and source book, Raphael Patai, 1994; http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/01/surviving_anxiety/355741/3/ ; http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/judging-spinoza/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0 ; http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i9722.pdf ;