Sufi

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Sufi worshipers are the esoteric mystics of Islam, similar to the Yogis of India, the Qabalists of Judaism, the Monks of Christianity. Sufism aka tasawwuf, is the quiet internal search for God; The word refers to the simple wool robe worn by Sufis. While based on the revelations of the Prophet Mohammad, few would consider him a Sufi. Turning inward to God, they tended to asceticism and contemplation rather than law and education. The Golden Age was 1200-1500 C.E throughout the Mongol and Arabic world, with inroads into India, China and Persia.

 in progress 

Practitioners: Ali ibn Abi Talib ; Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah ; Uwais al-Qarni; Harrm bin Hian; Hasan Basri; Sayid ibn al-Mussib; Ruwaym; Junayd of Baghdad; Khoja Akhmet Yassawi; Attar of Nishapur (c. 1145 – @ 1221) aka Farid al-Din 'Attar; Emir Abd al-Qadir, Algeria ; Amadou Bamba ; Hajj Umar Tall in sub-Saharan Africa; Sheikh Mansur Ushurma and Imam Shamil in the Caucasus region; Sufi Abd al-Hadi Aqhili (aka Ivan Aguéli; René Guénon aka Sheikh Abdul Wahid Yahya ; Bawa Muhaiyaddeen; Nazim Al-Haqqani; Javad Nurbakhsh; Bulent Rauf; Irina Tweedie; Muzaffer Ozak; Nahid Angha ; Ali Kianfar; Rumi aka Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, Sunni Mevlevi Order of the Whirling Dervishe; ; G. I. Gurdjieff of the Fourth Way WORK; P. D. Ouspensky; Idries Shah; John G. Bennett; Andrew D. Chumbley; Hakim Bey; Henry Corbin, on Shia Iranian Sufism; Inayat Khan, Universal Sufism; 'Alā' ud-Dīn Key-Qobād, ruler of Anatolia (Turkey); Sayyed Burhan ud-Din Muhaqqiq Termazi; Khwāja Shamsu d-Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī aka Hafez; Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili of the Shia Safaviyya Sufis of Iran; Sheikh Zaheed, leader of the Zaheedi Sufi order;  ; Shams-e Tabrizi, dervish, 1244; Omar Khayyam ; Khalil Gibran (1883-1931); Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh, of the Nimatullahi Order; Seyyed Hossein Nasr; Shaykh 'Abd al-Halim Mahmud, aka Shaykh al-Azhar; Junayd; Muhammad ibn 'Ali al-Qassab, of the Junayd; Ruwaym ibn Ahmad; Samnun; Abu Muhammad al-Jariri; 'Amr ibn 'Uthman al-Makki; 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Rahim al-Qannad ; al-Sarraj; Arthur Deikman, M.D; Yunus Emre ; Ahmet Yesevi; Diwan Mansur al-Hallaj; Diwan 'Umar ibn al-Farid; Diwan Muhiy al-Din Ibn al-'Arabi ; Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami; Dr. Nahid Angha; Camille Adams Helminski of the Mevlevi Sufi Order; Habiba, from Uzbekistan; Rabi'a al-'Adawiya; Rabi'a al-Badawiya ; Inayat Khan aka Hazrat Inayat Khan of Universal Sufism; his teacher Hazrat Shaykh al-Mashaykh Muhammad Abu Hashim Madani; Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan of The Sufi Order International; Khwajah Ahmed Yesevi of the the Yasawi order in Kazakhstan; Abdul Qadir Jilani, founder of the Qadiriyyah order; Sahabuddin Suharwardi in Asia Minor /Turkey; Moinuddin Chishti in India; Najmuddin Kubra of the Dhia of the Kubrawiya Sufi order;


Texts: Kashf al-Mahjûb of Hujwiri; the Risâla of Qushayri; Imam Al Ghazali's the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness";

Sects: Current Sufi orders include Alians, Bektashi Order, Mevlevi Order, Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Jerrahi, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Ashrafia and Uwaisi aka Oveyssi;

Influences; Islam; Tengrism shamanism from the Mongols; Tibetan shamanic Buddhism;

Imam Al-Ghazali taught shut down lower self to let God flood in the Naqshbandi and Shadhili orders teach an appreciation of God's Creation; Said Nursi to strict adherence to Islam; Muhammad Emin Er teaches "subtle centers" like Hindu Chakras; Robert Frager, in the Sufi Khalwati Jerrahi order Mansur Al-Hallaj (d. 922), visited Sindh to study "Indian Magic" Dhikr-e-Qulb (remembrance of Allah by Heartbeats, meditation on the 99 Names of God in the Qur'an ;

Muraqaba = meditation on God's NAME and Unity, similar to Dhikr = repetition of either prayers of God NAMEs ; both similar to Qabalistic techniques of the Merkavah and Zakhor ; Hadhra = inviting God's presence; Qawwali -sacred music and song; Sema = also music and dance, particularly the Whirling Dervish dance; Khalwa = retreat - similar to the Way of the Monk;


Enemies: The Turkish Republican state; The Iranian Islamic Republic; Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (d1110/1699) of the Twelver Shia in Iran;


Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sufi ; http://www.nimatullahi.org/what-is-sufism/ ; http://islam.uga.edu/Sufism.html; http://www.haqq.com.au/~salam/sufilinks/index.html; http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Sufism