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The various Viking tribes, including the Norse, Jugurtha, Dene aka Danes, Goths, Visigoths, the Rus aka Rhos aka Russians, Varangians aka Væringjar, the Jutes, Frisians, all primarily sailing barbarian warriors;

The Normans were descended from Danish and Norwegian Vikings who conquered northern France aka Normandy; The Angles and the Saxons had migrated to England earlier from Northern Germany;

The oldest record with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, before the great migrations, but also see the Kjula runestone, the Turinge Runestone, the Ingvar runestones, Greece Runestones, England Runestones, the Jelling stones of King Gorm the Old and his son, Harald Bluetooth, the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man for archeological records, as well as many recovered treasure caches and shipwrecks; the Georgian chronicle Kartlis tsovreba; English Abby records;

Understanding the Viking invasions and trade helps to understand the disruptions and population changes in England in particular, the Anglo-Saxons being a composite early Viking group overcome by the Normans, a later Viking group, both pushing the Celtic peoples into Wales, Ireland and Scotland where the farming was not as profitable;

See Ptolemy; Herodotus; Steppes warriors; Babylon; Ten Lost Tribes in Kazakhstan; Tacitus; the Salian Franks; the Lombards ; and distinguished from the land Barbarians like the Picts of Northern Scotland, including Verturiones, Taexali and Venicones tribes aka the kingdom of Alba; the Gaels aka Goidels aka Old Welsh aka Galic tribes of Ireland and southwest Scotland; the Scots or Pechts; the Druids; Robert Wentworth Little; Robert E. Howard, creator of Conan the Barbarian; David MacRitchie‎; Sir Walter Scott ; Robert Burns; Lt. Col. Leslie Forbes of Scotland; Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor of Ireland and Yorkshire; R.J.Stewart; Ronald Heaver; Kerr Cuhulain; J.W. Brodie-Innes ; James Frazer; Raymond Buckland; Brother Rudyard Kipling; Anne Rice in The Lives of the Mayfair Witches; Terry Pratchett; Kirk Douglas; Tony Curtis; Arthur Ransome; WB Kirk White; Gerald Gardner; George Watson MacGregor Reid; James Manchester, M.D, Druid; Grand Archdruid Rhodonn Starrus AKA Aerach Crann Crithaec; Olivia Robertson; Ian Corrigan; Isaac Bonewits; Peter Davidson; Brother John Michael Greer; Ross Nichols; Godfrey Higgins; W.B. Yeats; Thomas Penry Evans; Arthur Machen; Fritz Leiber; Gwydion Pendderwen; Alexei Kondratiev, Pest in Peace, old friend;

Enemies: Alfred the Great (849 - 901), aka King of Wessex aka "King of the Anglo-Saxons", from 871 to 899;

Resources: The Barbarian Empires of the Steppes lecture series by Professor Kenneth W. Harl, 2014; The Vikings lectures by Professor Kenneth W. Harl, ; ;; ;; ; ;;; some great photos - ; ;;;