Voltaire

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Voltaire AKA an anagram of "AROVET LI," the Latinized spelling of his surname, Arouet, AKA François-Marie Arouet

France 1694 – 1778


Comments: satire; Freemason; French Enlightenment ; advocated freedom of religion, freedom of expression, free trade and separation of church and state; experimented with "natural sciences"; Antisemitism, partially in opposition to the Old and New Testaments;


Teachers: Sir Isaac Newton

Students: Frederick the Great; Charb aka Stephane Charbonnier, Charlie Hebdo editor, 2015;

Friends: Ben Franklin; Montesquieu; John Locke; Jean-Jacques Rousseau; Émilie du Châtele AKA Marquise du Châtelet, Gabrielle Émilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil; Marie Louise Mignot; Samuel Koënig; James Boswell; Adam Smith,economist; Giacomo Casanova; Edward Gibbon, historian; Delisle Sasles aka Delisle de Sales aka Jean-Baptiste-Claude Delisle de Sales, author of the Philosophy of Nature (1769);

Enemies: Marat; Chevalier de Rohan;

Organizations: initiated by Ben Franklin at Loge des Neuf Soeurs (the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, or Muses) of Freemasonry, 4 April 1778 ; The Order of Agathopades, with Marshal Moritz of Saxony, which tried to mediate between Catholic and Protestants, to no avail;

Author: Candide, which satirized Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz optimistic philosophy, plays, poetry, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. "Letters concerning the English Nation" ( 1733); Eléments de la philosophie de Newton (Elements of Newton's Philosophy); "Treatise on Tolerance" , 1763;

Quotes: Think for yourselves and let others enjoy the privilege to do so, too; "History is the lie commonly agreed upon" ;


Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltaire; http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/v#a913; The Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia by Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie AKA Cryptonymus IX degree, 1877 ; eyes not so great, listen here - http://librivox.org/candide01/; or others here - http://librivox.org/author/4298 ; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/28/voltaire-best-seller_n_6562516.html ;